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Gemstones

Probably the first stone used for ornamental purposes was a smooth colored river rock. Or maybe a pretty river stone was spotted before a hunter successfully got his dinner. The hunter then carried that pretty river stone with him as his lucky hunting stone. Stones of all kinds have played a very important part of the history of humans. From little river stones to huge stones, such as at Stonehenge, stones of all sizes and types have been called "the bones of Mother Earth".

Gemstone is any of various minerals highly prized for beauty, durability, and rarity. Of the more than 2,000 identified natural minerals, fewer than 100 are used as gemstones and only 16 have achieved importance. These are beryl, chrysoberyl, corundum, diamond, feldspar, garnet, jade , lazurite, olivine, opal, quartz , spinel , topaz, tourmaline, turquoise, and zircon. Some of these minerals provide more than one type of gem. Beryl, for example, provides emerald and <aquamarine, while corundum provides rubies and sapphires. In virtually all cases, the minerals have to be cut and polished for use in jewelry.

Gemstones have attracted humankind since ancient times, and have long been used for jewelry. The prime requisite for a gem is that it must be beautiful. The beauty may lie in color or lack of color, in the latter case, extreme limpidity and "fire" may provide the attraction. A gem must also be durable to withstand the wear and tear of constant handling.

In some cases, the color of gemstones is also artificially enhanced (treated gem) to increase the value of the stone. Staining, heat treatment, and irradiation are used among the treatments.

Optical Properties

The beauty of gems depends to a large extent on their optical properties. The most important optical properties are the degree of refraction and color. Other properties include fire, the display of prismatic colors; dichroism, the ability of some gemstones to present two different colors when viewed in different directions; and transparency. Diamond is highly prized because of its fire and brilliancy, ruby and emerald because of the intensity and beauty of their colors, and star sapphire and star ruby because of the star effect, known as asterism, as well as for their color.

In certain gemstones, notably opals, brilliant areas of color can be seen within the stone; these areas change in hue and size as the stone is moved. This phenomenon, known as play of color, differs from fire and is caused by interference and reflection of the light by tiny irregularities and cracks inside the stone. Opals also exhibit milky or smoky reflections from within the gem. Gems that are fibrous in structure show irregular interior reflections similar to those seen on watered or moire silk. This optical property, which is called chatoyancy, is exhibited by several gems, notably the tiger eye and cat’s-eye.

The appearance of a gem as seen by reflected light is another optical property of gemstones and is called luster. The luster of gems is characterized by the terms metallic, adamantine (like the luster of the diamond), vitreous (like the luster of glass), resinous, greasy, silky, pearly, or dull. Luster is particularly important in the identification of gemstones in their uncut state.

Identification of Gems

A gem cannot always be identified by sight alone. It is therefore necessary to rely on measurement of the optical properties that can be determined without harming the stone in any way.

The gemologist uses an instrument called a refractometer to measure the characteristic property of the stone, known as refractive index, which is its relative ability to refract light. In addition, an instrument called the polariscope is employed to determine whether a gem is doubly or singly refracting. Emeralds, rubies, sapphires, amethysts, and synthetic rubies and sapphires are all doubly refracting, whereas diamonds, spinels, synthetic spinels, garnets, and glass are singly refracting. A special dark-field illuminator with a binocular microscope is employed for examining the interior of a gemstone to determine whether it is of natural or artificial origin, and to search for inclusions characteristic of a given gemstone.

These tests usually are sufficient to identify the rather limited number of materials used as gemstones; occasionally, however, other instruments are required, including a dichroscope, which measures the property called dichroism, or a spectroscope to determine the characteristic absorption spectra . Hardness, the test ordinarily associated with gem testing, is never used on cut stones by the gemologist.

Another physical test that can be given to an unknown stone is the determination of its specific gravity . For exact determinations various weighing devices are used, but rough approximations of the specific gravity of lighter stones can be made by means of a series of liquids of known specific gravity. If the stone will float in a liquid having a specific gravity of 4 and sink in a liquid with a specific gravity of 3, the specific gravity of the stone must lie between these limits and be approximately 3.5.

Artificial Gems

The term artificial gem is used to describe either an imitation of a natural gemstone or a synthetic gem that is chemically identical to naturally occurring gems.

Imitation Gem

Such a gem may be made of flint glass, often silvered on the back to increase the brilliance. Since World War II, colored plastics have replaced glass, especially in costume jewelry. Plastics are cheaper, more easily molded, and lighter in weight.

During the 19th century, artificial pearls were made by blowing hollow beads of glass and pouring into them a mixture of liquid ammonia and the white matter from the scales of fish such as the bleak, roach, or dace. A much better type of artificial pearl, the indestructible bead, was introduced shortly after 1900. The bead is made of solid glass with only a narrow hole for the thread. Pearl essence, consisting of the crushed scales of certain herring, is applied to the outside of the glass and covered with a transparent, colorless lacquer.

The most successful imitation of a diamond is strontium titanate, made by a flame-fusion technique. Its index of refraction is almost identical to that of a diamond, and it has a higher dispersion. Thus, it has the brilliance and greater fire than the diamond. It scratches easily, however. A harder material simulating the diamond is rutile, or titanium oxide.

Synthetic Gems

The term is limited by the U.S. Federal Trade Commission to manufactured materials that duplicate a natural gemstone chemically, physically, and optically. Synthetic gems can be distinguished under a microscope because they are more perfect than natural gemstones and contain no irregularities.

Synthetic diamonds were first made by the General Electric Company in the U.S. in 1955. In their process, carbonaceous compounds are subjected to pressures of 56 metric tons per sq cm (360 metric tons per sq in) at temperatures of 2760° C (5000° F). The diamonds thus produced are suitable only for industrial use.

In the late 1960s a method was developed for "growing" diamonds by heating a diamond particle to a high temperature and subjecting it to methane gas. The gas decomposes into carbon atoms, which adhere to the diamond crystal. The crystal structure of the enlarged diamond is identical to that of a natural diamond. Diamonds of about 1 carat (200 mg or 0.007 oz) have been produced by this method, but their cost is still considerably higher than that of naturally occurring diamonds.

Sapphires are made in an apparatus resembling an oxyhydrogen torch. The flame is directed into a fire clay support inside an insulated chamber. The oxygen gas carries finely powdered pure aluminum oxide into the flame, and the powder fuses into droplets, forming a cylindrical boule, or matrix, on the support. The size of the resulting sapphire is controlled by varying the gas flow, temperature, and amount of powder. Boules weighing up to 200 carats (40 g or 1.41 oz) can be produced by this technique. Perfect rubies and sapphires up to 50 carats (10 g or 0.353 oz) have been cut from such a boule.

Rubies are made by the same process by adding 5 to 6 percent chromium oxide to the aluminum oxide. Colors other than red are produced by adding different metallic oxides. Stars can be added to synthetic rubies or sapphires by adding an excess of titanium oxide to the aluminum oxide powder and heating to temperatures greater than 1000° C (greater than 1832° F). In gems made with this technique, synthetic stars appear sharper than naturally occurring stars.

Emeralds, some of which are of gem quality, are synthesized by still-secret methods. They can be distinguished from natural emeralds by their red glow under ultraviolet light.

Gem Cutting

The shaping and polishing of gem materials to enhance their beauty and, in some cases, to remove imperfections is performed by expert workers known as lapidaries. Their trade, although highly skilled, is not as exacting as that of the diamond cutter.

Materials and Equipment

Gems are shaped entirely by being ground on abrasive wheels or revolving abrasive disks. For minerals that are no harder than quartz, natural sandstone wheels are sometimes used, but for the harder stones, such as rubies and sapphires, synthetic grinding wheels of cemented Carborundum (silicon carbide) must be employed.

The first step in the cutting of a gem is to saw it roughly to shape. Thin abrasive disks or metal disks charged with powdered diamond or other abrasives are employed in this process. Wheels (called laps) made of Carborundum or of abrasive-charged cast iron are used to shape the stone. The stone to be shaped is cemented to the end of a wooden stick called a dop and is held against the revolving wheel or lap with the aid of a supporting block placed adjacent to the wheel. This supporting block contains a number of holes in which the end of the dop can be rested. By changing the dop from one hole to another the lapidary is able to control the angle of the facet, or face, being ground. When the stone has been ground to the required shape, it is brought to a high polish on wooden or cloth wheels charged with a fine abrasive such as rouge or tripoli powder.

Gem Cuts

The oldest and simplest of the many standardized shapes or cuts given to gemstones is the cabochon cut, in which the stone is smoothly rounded. The cabochon cut is essential if a star or cat’s-eye is to be visible, and is the most satisfactory cut for opal, moonstone, and colorful opaque gems. Cabochon-cut stones usually are rounded on the back; this is sometimes advantageous in improving appearance, but often is done in order to give the stone extra weight.

Various forms of faceted cuts, in which the gem is given a number of symmetrical plane surfaces, or facets, are universally employed in the cutting of diamonds and are used extensively for other stones as well. The most common cut is the brilliant. In this cut the top of the stone is ground to a flat so-called table from which the sides of the stone slope outward to the broadest portion of the stone, which is known as the girdle. Below the girdle, the sides slope inward at a slightly broader angle to a tiny flat surface, the culet, parallel to the table at the bottom of the stone. The ordinary brilliant-cut stone has 32 facets besides the table in the top portion of the stone (called the crown or bezel) above the girdle, and 24 facets besides the culet on the bottom portion of the stone (called the pavilion or base) below the girdle. In rare cases the number of facets is increased by some multiple of 8. Scientific studies have worked out proportions of the size and inclination of the facets that give the maximum brilliance to a given gem.

In addition to the round brilliant, stones are cut in a variety of square, triangular, diamond-shaped, and trapezoidal faceted cuts. The use of such cuts is largely determined by the original shape of the stone. Large rubies, sapphires, and emeralds are often cut square or rectangular with a large table facet surrounded by a relatively small number of supplementary facets. The emerald cut, which is frequently also used for diamonds, resembles the brilliant, but has a large square or rectangular facet at the top and a total of 58 facets in all, although more or less facets may be used, again added or subtracted in multiples of 8.

Gem Engraving

Designs are cut in precious or semiprecious stones either as cameos, in which the design is raised in relief above the surface, or as intaglios, in which the design is incised into the surface (see Cameo). Intaglios were formerly often used as seals for making impressions on wax or damp clay.

The technique of gem engraving requires, on all hard stones, the use of a rotating metal tool. The stone is fastened to a wooden handle and moved against the tool, which does not itself perform the cutting of the design but merely rubs abrasive powder on the stone. The ancients probably used emery powder for this purpose, but since Roman times the abrasive has been a mixture of diamond dust with oil.

Ancient Engraving

Intaglio cutting probably started during the 4th millennium BC, in Mesopotamia, during the Elamite and Sumerian civilizations (see Mesopotamian Art and Architecture). The first seals, made of stone, were usually cylindrical and were suspended on a cord. The art reached its peak about 2800 BC, in elaborate cuttings on cylindrical rock crystal; these commonly dealt with the adventures of the mythical king Gilgamesh. By the 1st millennium BC the art had spread throughout Asia Minor and Egypt. Although the cylindrical form was still common, domed and conical seals with flat surfaces for the intaglios became popular. The Egyptians initially adopted the cylinder but later produced seals of various shapes, including that of the scarab beetle, often cut in one of the colored quartzes, such as amethyst, carnelian, or jasper. Unlike the people of Asia Minor, they engraved symbols rather than pictorial scenes (see Egyptian Art and Architecture). Although the Egyptians made use of the quartzes for their engravings, the most popular material for the making of seals was glazed earthenware. The earliest Cretan gems were carved in soft steatite, but by about 1700 BC harder stones such as chalcedony were employed. The engraving of seals for the bezels of rings was first practiced about 1100 BC.

The carvings on the gems of Greece and Rome provide a complete miniature history of the art of every period during which they were made (see Greek Art and Architecture). The Greek gems of the 6th century BC were cut in agate, carnelian, and chalcedony; by the 4th century BC the last had become the most popular material, although lapis lazuli, agate, jasper, and rock crystal were also employed. Gems of the Hellenistic period, dating from about 330 BC, were cut in a large variety of stones, including garnet, beryl, topaz, sard, agate, and amethyst. The use of glass as a substitute for more precious stones was introduced about this time. The cameo, usually made of one of the layered quartzes (such as sard onyx) or in colored glass, made its first appearance in Hellenic Greece and was brought to a high artistic level by the Roman craftsmen. The cameo was commonly employed in articles of personal adornment, such as brooches or clasps. The intaglio gems of Rome were usually used as the bezels of rings.

Revival in Europe

By the 2nd century ad gem engraving had declined in Asia Minor, the best examples being talismans produced by the adherents of the Gnostic heresy. They are frequently connected with the symbolism attached to the worship of Mithra's. In Europe a limited number of gems were engraved, usually for bishops’ rings, until the 7th century, but the art then declined until the end of the 14th century, when Florentine and German engravings made their appearance. In Italy the art received impetus from the ardor with which the Medici family collected gems. Although the artists of the Renaissance based their designs on those of the Greek and Roman artists, they employed a freedom of interpretation that made their work individual. On the other hand, the revival of gem engraving that took place in the 18th and 19th centuries produced works that so closely resembled the classical originals that it is difficult to tell them apart.

Types of Materials for Jewelery

Titanium
The specific gravity of a gem is its weight when compared with the same volume of water at a temperature of 4 degrees Celsius. The denser the minerals in the gemstone are, the heavier the weight or specific gravity will be. Heavier gemstones are usually harder as well. The range is from amber, which has a specific gravity of 1.08 and opal, with a specific gravity of 2.05, all the way up to corundum (sapphires and rubies) with a specific gravity of 3.99, spessartite garnet, specific gravity of 4.15, marcasite, specific gravity of 4.9, and cup rite (s.g., 6.0) and castrate (s.g., 6.9). Diamond is in the heavy mid-range, with a specific gravity of 3.52.

Hardness
Gemstones are often tested by using the Mohs' hardness scale to determine just how hard they are. The harder minerals are more durable in that they do not scratch easily and will hold up better in jewelry. Talc is the softest mineral with a hardness of 1 and can be easily scratched with a fingernail. The gemstones with a rating of 7 or over are relatively hard. Quartz gemstones (citrine, amethyst, etc.) range in the 7's, topaz rates 8, and corundum (sapphires and rubies) are a 9 on the Mohs' hardness scale. Diamond registers a 10 and is the hardest known naturally occurring material on earth, more than ten times the hardness of corundum at 9. There is more of a spread between the gems and minerals found between 2 and 3 and between 5 and 6, however corundum is only about 10 per cent harder than topaz. The hardness is relative, but it is, nevertheless, a useful identification tool. Hardness is almost never used as a separation test with gemstones since it is considered a destructive test and other nondestructive tests exist to enable separation and identification.

Cleavage and Fracture
Cleavage is the splitting of gems and minerals along one of the planes related to the stone's structure. Crystalline minerals have cleavage and fracture, whereas amorphous or massive stones only fracture. Cleavage is considered perfect or if the stone parts and produces perfect smooth planes (diamond, topaz) and is very important in diamond-cutting. Fracture is the way a stone breaks. Consider fracture to be similar to a piece of wood breaking in a direction other than the direction of it's grain. Conchoidal fracture, which is most common in gemstones, shows a series of arcs that spread outward.

Tenacity or Toughness
Tenacity or toughness is the ability of a stone to withstand pressure or impact. Minerals which crumble into small pieces or a powder are said to be brittle. If a gem bends but returns to its original position, it is said to be elastic (mica, nephrite, jadeite); these minerals are tough and difficult to break. The jade gemstones (jadeite, nephrite) are the toughest of all gems, making them also difficult to cut. Talc and gypsum are examples of minerals which are flexible. Ductile or malleable minerals are those (gold, silver, etc.) which may be flattened out into thin sheets under pressure. The brittleness factor of a gemstone is an important consideration in gem cutting and polishing. Many gem crystals shatter or chip easily, and this must be taken into consideration when cutting.

Magnetism and Electricity
Those stones which are attracted by a magnet are considered magnetic, such as magnetite and hematite, which contain iron. Most minerals and gems are poor conductors of electricity. Good natural conductors include native metals and minerals with a metallic luster (pyrite). Natural blue diamond is a semi-conductor. Some stones, such as tourmaline, become electrically charged when heated and are said to be pyroelectric. Tourmaline is also piezoelectric; it becomes charged if stressed at certain points along the crystal. Quartz is an important piezoelectric mineral and this factor is what makes it useful in electronic circuits and photoelectric processes. Amber is triboelectric; it develops a negative electric charge when it is rubbed and attracts small fragments to its surface.

Thermal Conductivity
Some stones are good conductors of heat, such as quartz, which draws heat away from the body when held and thus feels cold to the touch. A poor thermal conductor, such as amber, feels warm to the touch because it does not conduct heat away from the body. The surface of a genuine gemstone will DE-mist more rapidly than that of glass or an artificial stone. Thermal conductivity should also be considered when cutting gemstones, as some stones will need a cooling-off period during the cutting.

Optical Properties of Gems

Luminescence
Luminescence incorporates a gemstone's ability to emit visible light in darkness when exposed to ultraviolet light (fluorescence, named after flourite, the predominant fluorescent gemstone), and in the case of kunzite, to produce an "afterglow" which lingers after the light has ceased (phosphorescence).

Luster

The luster or brilliance of transparent gems is caused by light reflecting from the stone's surface. The smoother and more highly polished the surface is, the greater the luster will be. High light refractivity of a gem will cause greater luster as well. The most intensive luster is seen in the highest refractive indices, diamond, zircon, and rutile, and is known as an adamantine luster. Hematite produces a metallic luster, even though it is not transparent. Most gemstones have a vitreous or glassy luster, but there are other types of lusters, including resinous (amber), greasy (serpentine), waxy (turquoise), pearly (rhodonite), and silky (tiger's eye).

Refraction and Birefringence

Refraction is the bouncing around of light from the greater part of the light ray which hits the gemstone and passes into the stone. As it enters the denser medium of the gem, the light bends and the amount of bending or light refraction produces a measurable index (refractive index), which is often used to help identify a gemstone. When light hitting a gemstone splits into two rays traveling through the stone at different speeds and in different directions, the reaction is called birefringence or double refraction. This is seen uncommonly and in a variety of calcite called Iceland Spar as well as zircon, rutile, and sphene.

Dispersion

Dispersion is the separation of light into its separate spectral colors. Gemstones with the highest light refraction typically show the highest dispersion rate as well (rutile, sphene, diamond, zircon). This color dispersion or fire can be enhanced by a gem cutter if he uses an appropriate facetting style.

Pleochroism

Color changes which are evident when viewed from different angles in gemstones (iolite, alexandrite, andalusite) is called pleochroism. It is very important for the gem cutter to cut a pleochroic stone properly in order to show off the different colors. Ruby and sapphire have two color shades and are pleochroic; in ruby, for example, yellow-red and purplish-red, which distinguishes it from garnet and red spinel, which have no pleochroicism. Iolite displays lavender-blue, gray, and pale yellow when viewed from different angles.

Titanium
Titanium is a silver coloured metal which is about half the weight of Stainless Steel. This weight difference can be a big advantage if you like the look of really thick jewellery but your piercing is gets aggravated by heavy jewellery. Titanium jewellery is an excellent choice to be used in new piercings as it is hypoallergenic and is normally accepted by the body very well. A new piercing done with Titanium jewellery will usually heal up much faster too. Healing quickly is ideal because the longer a piercing takes to heal the longer it it is susceptible to infection and more chance it has to migrate through the skin.

18ct Yellow Gold

Only 18 carat solid Gold, which has been tested to ensure it is actually 18 carat or higher, is used at Adrenalin Body Piercing for making jewellery. 18 carat Gold is also a very good material for body jewellery and is readily accepted by most peoples body piercing, but it does not work well for all people. It is softer then metals such as Titanium, Niobium and 316L steel and some peoples skin can actually discolour the gold but it can easily be re-polished back to its former luster. Gold Body jewellery looks great and is very popular with "Gold People". 9ct gold only contains about 30% gold and therefore we do not recommend it for fresh or healed piercings and therefore never used at Adrenalin.

Niobium

Niobium is an element metal with similar properties of Titanium but its is not as light. It is Hypoallergenic so it works great for body piercing and the other exceptional property of Niobium is that it can be anodized to a wide variety of colours.

Coloured niobium rings, even though inert in the body, are not recommend for initial piercings. This is due to the need to rotate the jewellery through the piercing to properly clean it and that rotating can causes the colour to wear thin, dull and patchy. The thickness of this colour is between ½ and 1 one millionth of a centimeter thick! If you want to use anodized Niobium jewellery in your piercing then we recommend that you wait until the piercing has fully healed.

Niobium rings can be highly polished to a silver colour so Niobium jewellery is a great choice for the initial piercing too.

Niobium jewellery can also be coloured to a Black/Hematite colour. This surface is a lot more durable then the surface of anodized Niobium jewellery. At Adrenalin Body Piercing we can also re-anodize or re-blacken your jewellery if it ever needs it!

316L Grade Stainless Steel

316L Stainless Steel, often referred to as "Surgical Stainless Steel", contains some Nickel which quite a few people are allergic to. Some peoples piercings heal up fine with stainless steel, although it may considerably lengthen the healing time. This longer healing time may allow the jewellery to migrate from its original placement.

For wearing in fully healed piercings 316L Stainless Steel is usually fine. For some people however, if they use this jewellery then the piercing will become aggravated causing redness, swelling and pain. If this happens you may be able to correct the problem by replacing the Stainless Steel jewellery ASAP with the jewellery you wore to successfully heal the piercing.

Acrylic

Acrylic often referred to as Perspex is also used for "Body Jewellery". We have quite a range of jewellery including: Bead rings (which glow under "Black Light"), Barbells, Straws, Hoops, Tubes, Acrylic Ear Plugs (Tapered and Straight) in many different finishes, sizes and colours.

Ebony

Tribal Ear plugs. Our Ebony comes from the Masai tribes in Africa.

Gemstones Precious and Semiprecious Stones

Precious and semiprecious stones, in addition to gold, silver, and platinum, are the most commonly used components of jewelry.

Precious Stones:

Diamonds have traditionally been the most highly prized of such stones, varying in color from yellow to bluish white and sometimes reaching enormous size. Rubies, emerald, and sapphires are other precious stones used for jewelry, as are the less costly chrysoberyl, topaz, and zircon.

Semiprecious Stones:

 Amethyst, garnet, opal, aquamarine, jade , turquoise, agate, onyx, lapis lazuli, and malachite.
Stones of organic origin: Amber, a fossil tree resin, is a highly valued stone. Pearls and coral, though animal in origin rather than mineral, are also usually considered gemstones.

Agate may be stained a variety of colors: red, lemon yellow, green, blue, and brown. Jasper stained blue to simulate Lapis Lazuli, and turquoise is stained to imitate opal.

Heat treatment of gems to improve or change color has been practiced for centuries. When heated, smoky quartz resembles citrine or topaz, some brownish or reddish zircon becomes bright blue or colorless, yellow topaz becomes pink, slightly colored chalcedony becomes carnelian red, and some rubies or amethyst are more evenly colored.
Irradiation of certain gemstones also causes color changes. Some colorless diamond become green, rose quartz becomes brown, and decolorized amethyst regains its purple hue. These color changes are not always permanent, and the stone may become radioactive.

In recent times various kinds of synthetic gems, including rubies, sapphires, and emerald, have been produced. Two methods of fabrication are currently employed, one involving crystal growth from solution and the other crystal growth from melts.

In addition to their use as jewelry, gems were regarded by many civilizations as miraculous and endowed with mysterious powers. Different stones were endowed with different and sometimes overlapping attributes. The diamond, for instance, was thought to give its wearer strength in battle and to protect him against ghosts and magic. During the Middle Ages, a ruby ring was thought to bring its owner lands and titles, to bestow virtue, to protect against seduction, and to prevent effervescence in water--but only if worn on the left hand. Vestiges of such beliefs persist in the modern practice of wearing a birthstone.

Types of Gemstones

  • Agate
  • Moss Agate
  • Eye Agate
  • Blue Lace Agate
  • Tree Agate
  • Snakeskin Agate
  • Fire Agate
  • Abalone Shell
  • Alexandrite
  • Amazonite
  • Amber
  • Amethyst
  • Ametrine
  • Apatite
  • Aragonite
  • Angel Aura
  • Angelite
  • Apophyllite
  • Aqua Aura
  • Aquamarine
  • Atlantasite
  • Aventurine
  • Azurite
  • Bloodstone
  • Blue Quartz
  • Blue Lace Agate
  • Cacoxenite
  • Cactus Quartz
  • White Calcite
  • Honey Calcite
  • Red Calcite
  • Blue Calcite
  • Green Calcite
  • Optical Clear Calcite
  • Mangano Calcite (Pink)
  • Orange Calcite
  • Carnelian
  • Cat's Eye
  • Celestite
  • Chalcedony
  • Chalcopyrite
  • Charoite
  • Chrysanthemum
  • Chrysocolla
  • Chrysoprase
  • Citrine
  • Copper
  • Red Coral
  • Black Coral
  • Black Coral
  • Covellite
  • Crystal Quartz
  • Danburite
  • Datolite
  • Diamond
  • Dioptase
  • Dolomite
  • Dream Crystal
  • Dravite
  • Dumortierite
  • Emerald
  • Eye Agate
  • Fire Agate
  • Fluorite
  • Fuchsite
  • Galena
  • Garnet
  • Goldstone
  • Hematite
  • Herkimer Diamond
  • Howlite
  • Infinite Stone
  • Iolite
  • Jade
  • Jasper
  • Rainbow Jasper
  • Leopard Skin Jasper
  • Red Jasper
  • Ocean Jasper
  • Yellow Jasper
  • Jet
  • Kunzite
  • Kyanite
  • Lapis Lazuli
  • Labradorite
  • Lepidolite
  • Lithium Quartz
  • Lodestone
  • Lodalite
  • Magnetite
  • Malachite
  • Moonstone
  • Moss Agate
  • Obsidian
  • Obsidian (Apache Tear)
  • Mahogany Obsidian
  • Rainbow Obsidian
  • Snowflake Obsidian
  • Blue Opal
  • Pink Opal
  • Fire Opal
  • Onyx
  • Peacock Ore
  • Pearl
  • Peridot
  • Pietersite
  • Petrified Wood
  • Prehnite
  • Pyrite
  • Quantum Quattro Silica
  • Quartz
  • Amethyst
  • Aventurine
  • Blue Quartz
  • Citrine
  • Crystal Quartz
  • Red Rutilated Quartz
  • Rose Quartz
  • Smokey Quartz
  • Spirit Quartz
  • Tangerine Quartz
  • Golden Rutilated Quartz
  • Red Rutilated Quartz
  • Rhodochrosite
  • Rhodonite
  • Rhyolite
  • Rose Quartz
  • Ruby
  • Sapphire
  • Sardonyx
  • Scolecite
  • Selenite
  • Septarian
  • Serpentine
  • Shiva Lingam
  • Smokey Quartz
  • Sodalite
  • Spirit Quartz
  • Sunstone
  • nakeskin Agate
  • Stilbite
  • Sugilite
  • Sulphur
  • Tektite
  • Tiger Eye
  • Tiger Iron
  • Tree Agate
  • White Topaz
  • Imperial Topaz
  • Tourmalines
  • Tourmalated Quartz
  • Pink Tourmaline
  • Black Tourmaline
  • Brown Tourmaline
  • Watermelon Tourmaline
  • Green Tourmaline
  • Turquoise
  • Unakite
  • Vesuvianite

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